IAGS logo Energy Security
Prepared by the
Institute for the Analysis of Global Security

January 21, 2004
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Terror's Next Target
Attacks on the West's oil and gas infrastructure -- from production facilities to pipelines and tankers -- are likely to be the next "mega" target of terrorists, and could wreak havoc with the world's economy, according to an in-depth IAGS analysis of the susceptibility of the energy industry featured in the latest Journal of International Security Affairs (Winter 2004).

Minding Its Business
Saudi Arabia, which has demonstrated its willingness to use its vast oil reserves as a foreign policy tool, has not acted to aid U.S. efforts to rebuild Iraq.

Fencing in looters and saboteurs in Iraq
Too many people in and outside of Iraq are hoping to deny Iraq a better future through a campaign of sabotage and plunder of the country's neglected oil facilities. The problem, and possible solutions.

Energy security and liquefied natural gas
Demand for natural gas has increased as have the security vulnerabilities presented by liquefied natural gas terminals and tankers.

Under the Radar

Oil, terrorism and drugs intermingle in Colombia
Seventy U.S. Special Forces soldiers are training Colombians to protect an oil pipeline.

Japan's struggle to secure future oil supply
Energy dependent Japan looks to Iran for oil, causing tension with the U.S.

Chad-Cameroon pipeline project put to test
Will the pipeline, partially financed by the World Bank, improve the lot of Chad and Cameroon or exacerbate existing corruption and strife?

Natural resource curse hits São Tomé
A tiny West African country illustrates a well known problem.

On the technology front

Fuel Cell Locomotive for Military and Commercial Railways
An international consortium is developing the world’s largest fuel cell vehicle, a 109 metric-ton, 1 MW locomotive.

Fuel cell power plant installed at NJ Sheraton
A stationary fuel cell will supply 250 kilowatts of electric power as well as heat to the Sheraton Edison Hotel, accounting for about 25% of the hotel's electricity and hot water.

Fuel cell scooters for Europe and China
Palcan's fuel cell powered scooter is designed to address the world's need for a low-end mass transport vehicle.

U.S. Air Force to get fuel cell bus
Fuel cell powered thirty-foot hybrid bus to be stationed at the Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii.

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Back Issues

Fuel Cell Buses to UK and Down Under

This past December, Ballard Power Systems’ delivered three Mercedes-Benz Citaro buses, powered with Ballard® fuel cell engines, to the public transport authorities in London. The City of London is one of ten cities participating in the European Fuel Cell Bus Project, which will see 30 fuel cell buses operating on the roads of Europe over the next two years. To date, buses involved in the European Fuel Cell Bus Project have operated for more than 5,700 hours and have traveled over 83,000 kilometers. The City of London is starting to operate the Ballard powered fuel cell buses on a central London bus route.

The 30 Mercedes-Benz Citaro buses equipped with 205 kW Ballard® fuel cell engines will be driven on the roads in ten different cities in Europe, including Amsterdam, Barcelona, Hamburg, London, Luxembourg, Madrid, Porto, Reykjavik, Stockholm and Stuttgart. These fuel cell buses will be driven by regular transit bus drivers, carrying passengers in daily service in each city. In 2004, three Ballard® fuel cell powered buses will be delivered to the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) in Santa Clara, CA.

Ballard will also provide three of its latest generation heavy-duty fuel cell engines to Australia's EvoBus for integration into Mercedes-Benz Citaro buses for the public transport system in Perth, Western Australia. Ballard will deliver the 205 kW heavy-duty fuel cell engines in the first half of 2004 and the buses will be placed in routine transit operation in the second half of 2004 as part of a two-year demonstration program. The Western Australian Government is leading this project and is providing the majority of the program funding. The buses will operate as part of the Transperth public transport system by Path Transit.

“Western Australia has a strong commitment to developing alternative transport energy sources,” said Ms. Alannah MacTiernan, Western Australia’s Planning and Infrastructure Minister. “Hydrogen fuel cell technology has extraordinary potential to reduce our oil dependency and improve environmental outcomes. This fuel cell demonstration program that we are conducting in partnership with globally recognized technology leaders is a key element of Western Australia’s Sustainable Transport Energy Program.”

All of the fuel cell buses will be driven by transit drivers, and will carry passengers on regular routes in daily service in each city as part of a two-year demonstration program.

Since 1993, Ballard has produced and tested five generations of heavy-duty fuel cell bus engines. Successful field demonstrations of Ballard® fuel cell powered buses in Chicago, Vancouver and Palm Springs have played an integral role in advancing Ballard’s fuel cell engine technology. Buses in these field demonstrations have carried over 200,000 riders.

Mercedes-Benz Citaro fuel cell bus

“Ballard is proud to be powering the largest fleet of fuel cell buses in the world today,” said Dennis Campbell, Ballard’s President and Chief Executive Officer. “Hundreds of thousands of people will have the opportunity to experience first-hand the clean, quiet and comfortable ride of these zero-emission buses. In addition to raising awareness of the considerable advantages of fuel cell power for urban transit, this fleet will provide the opportunity to showcase the diversity of solutions available for the production and delivery of hydrogen as the fuel of the future. These innovative products are the clearest evidence yet that the fuel cell and hydrogen revolution has truly begun.”

Also see:
List of fuel cell bus projects
U.S. Air Force to get fuel cell bus