IAGS logo Energy Security
Prepared by the
Institute for the Analysis of Global Security

March 31, 2004
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Terror's Next Target
Attacks on the West's oil and gas infrastructure -- from production facilities to pipelines and tankers -- are likely to be the next "mega" target of terrorists, and could wreak havoc with the world's economy, according to an in-depth IAGS analysis of the susceptibility of the energy industry featured in the latest Journal of International Security Affairs (Winter 2004).

Minding Its Business
Saudi Arabia, which has demonstrated its willingness to use its vast oil reserves as a foreign policy tool, has not acted to aid U.S. efforts to rebuild Iraq.

Fencing in looters and saboteurs in Iraq
Too many people in and outside of Iraq are hoping to deny Iraq a better future through a campaign of sabotage and plunder of the country's neglected oil facilities. The problem, and possible solutions.

Energy security and liquefied natural gas
Demand for natural gas has increased as have the security vulnerabilities presented by liquefied natural gas terminals and tankers.

Under the Radar

Oil, terrorism and drugs intermingle in Colombia
Seventy U.S. Special Forces soldiers are training Colombians to protect an oil pipeline.

Japan's struggle to secure future oil supply
Energy dependent Japan looks to Iran for oil, causing tension with the U.S.

Chad-Cameroon pipeline project put to test
Will the pipeline, partially financed by the World Bank, improve the lot of Chad and Cameroon or exacerbate existing corruption and strife?

Natural resource curse hits São Tomé
A tiny West African country illustrates a well known problem.

On the technology front

Fuel Cell Locomotive for Military and Commercial Railways
An international consortium is developing the world’s largest fuel cell vehicle, a 109 metric-ton, 1 MW locomotive.

Fuel cell power plant installed at NJ Sheraton
A stationary fuel cell will supply 250 kilowatts of electric power as well as heat to the Sheraton Edison Hotel, accounting for about 25 percent of the hotel's electricity and hot water.

Fuel cell scooters for Europe and China
Palcan's fuel cell powered scooter is designed to address the world's need for a low-end mass transport vehicle.

U.S. Air Force to get fuel cell bus
Fuel cell powered thirty-foot hybrid bus to be stationed at the Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii.

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Back Issues

EPA Displays the First Advanced Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle

The first advanced hydraulic hybrid sport utility vehicle was publicly displayed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), along with its partners, at the 2004 Society of Automotive (SAE) World Congress in March in Detroit, Michigan. This vehicle demonstrates that hydraulic hybrid technology has the potential to dramatically and cost-effectively improve the fuel economy of sport utility vehicles (SUVs) while at the same time improving performance.

"We are very excited about the potential for hydraulic hybrids in consumer and commercial applications," said Margo Oge, director of EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality. "This achievement builds on more than a decade of leadership by EPA and its partners in optimizing hydraulic technology for vehicle applications and bringing them into the marketplace."

The demonstration vehicle uses EPA's full hydraulic hybrid technology integrated in a stock SUV. Over the last decade, EPA has collaborated with many organizations to develop hydraulic hybrid technology including the Army, Ford, Eaton Corp., Parker- Hannafin Corp., FEV Engine Technology, Inc., Michigan State University, Ricardo Inc., Southwest Research Institute and the University of Wisconsin.

The vehicle that was displayed is a hydraulic hybrid, reported to achieve a 55 percent improvement in fuel economy. This hydraulic hybrid technology is projected to increase the cost of a large SUV by about $600 which would be quickly recouped by the consumer's lower fuel and maintenance costs. Another 30-40% improvement is available through the conversion of the gasoline engine to a diesel engine.

While electric hybrids add a battery pack, electric generator/motor, and power electronics, hydraulic hybrids add an accumulator (which stores energy as highly compressed nitrogen gas) and one or more hydraulic pump/motors. Full hydraulic hybrid technology means that the conventional transmission and transfer case have been removed and replaced with a hydraulic drivetrain; EPA has also replaced the large gasoline engine with a small diesel engine.

Hydraulic hybrids are one of several new clean diesel automotive technologies being developed by automakers, other companies and the Federal Government. Other technologies include electric hybrids, clean diesel engines, fuel cells and ongoing improvements to conventional gasoline engines.

Also at the SAE conference, the U.S. Army's National Automotive Center introduced a hybrid hydraulic military truck, called the SmarTruck III. The SMARTRUCK III recovers a portion of the energy normally wasted as heat by the vehicle brakes and boasts a hydraulic launch assist (HLA) that can provide a 25 - 35 percent improvement in fuel efficiency, and a 30 percent reduction in emissions while also providing high torque very quickly, even at low speeds.
The Army's SmarTruck III features hydraulic hybrid technology.

Also see:
Volkswagen AG and Archer Daniels Midland Announce Biodiesel Research Agreement
Plug-in hybrid electric HUMVEE for the U.S. military
Hydrogen fuel cell powered special operations vehicles for the Army